Publications

WHFB and Entra ID : Say Hello to your new cache flow

05/06/2024
Pentest
During security assessments, the cache can be a goldmine on Microsoft environments. Red teamers are familiar with MSCache or DCC2 hashes, which could be a fast track to a privileged account. However, when using WHFB and a cloud-only Entra ID environment, these hashes no longer exist. This blogpost aims at analyzing the cache components of Entra ID-joined devices with WHFB configured and provides a toolkit to use them.

Understanding and evading Microsoft Defender for Identity PKINIT detection

06/05/2024
Pentest
A few months following our blogpost on Microsoft Defender for Identity, new alerts related to Active Directory Certificate Services were added. This article will focus on suspicious certificate usage alerts: the detection mechanism will be explained as well as how to avoid raising any alert. In addition, a PowerShell script will be released to perform Kerberos authentication via PKINIT with the Windows API, from a non domain-joined machine.

So I became a node: exploiting bootstrap tokens in Azure Kubernetes Service

23/04/2024
Pentest
During one of our assessments, we managed to retrieve a Kubernetes bootstrap token from an AKS pod. It was a good opportunity to get a closer look at these tokens, how they work and how to exploit them. In this first blog post, we will describe the inner working of bootstrap tokens, the node authorization mode, signers and certificate controllers. Then we will show how to exploit a pod sharing the host network namespace in an AKS environment to leak such a token. The information provided in this blog post is based on Kubernetes v1.28 ...

OUned.py: exploiting hidden Organizational Units ACL attack vectors in Active Directory

19/04/2024
Pentest
Exploitation of Organizational Units (OUs) ACLs received comparatively little attention when it comes to the security analysis of domain objects permissions in Active Directory environments. Yet, their successful exploitation could lead to the compromise of all OU child objects, and thus to high-impact privilege escalation scenarios. Building upon the work of Petros Koutroumpis, this article will present how an attack based on the manipulation of the gPLink attribute of Organizational Units could be exploitable through several common ...

Entra ID Banned Password Lists: password spraying optimizations and defenses

17/04/2024
Pentest
Banned Password Lists is a feature of the Password Protection component of Entra ID providing additional security for password-based authentication by enforcing both a global and a custom list of banned words for user passwords. This article aims at analyzing its implementation with the objectives to improve password spraying attacks for red team operators while providing better defenses for blue teams.

Java deserialization tricks

19/03/2024
Pentest
During a red team engagement, we faced Java applications exposed on the internet and affected by arbitrary deserialization from user-supplied data. After quickly identifying a well-known gadget chain, we noticed that a WAF was rejecting requests exploiting the vulnerability by detecting specific patterns of the serialized chain, and that an EDR caught our first exploit. Moreover, firewalls were strictly filtering outbound traffic, including DNS. This article will present a few tricks regarding the gadgets that were used to exploit the...

WordPress for Security Audit

15/12/2023
Pentest
WordPress is a major player in the CMS market, powering around 40% of websites today. This widespread adoption has made it an attractive target for security research, as the safety of millions of websites depends on it. In this article, we will study in detail its core architecture: project structure, authorizations mechanisms, hooks, routing system, APIs and plugins.

Using ntdissector to extract secrets from ADAM NTDS files

06/12/2023
Tools
Pentest
During the development of ntdissector, we stumbled upon an AD Lightweight Directory Services (LDS) instance used by an internal application of a customer to store data. Just like AD DS, AD LDS stores the data inside a dit file: adamntds.dit. However, all known tools failed to parse this file while it looks a lot like a NTDS.dit file. In our research, we eventually found an article in cache already explaining a lot of differences with a standard NTDS.dit file. Unfortunately, the associated code was no longer available on GitHub. This ...

Finding a POP chain on a common Symfony bundle : part 2

11/10/2023
Pentest
The Symfony doctrine/doctrine-bundle package is one of the most common bundles installed along Symfony applications. At the time we are releasing this blogpost, it has been downloaded 144 million times, making it an interesting target for unserialize exploitation. If you want to improve your knowledge about PHP unserialize exploitation and see why weak typed languages are considered less secure, this blogpost is for you. The second part of this article will be focused on building a valid POP chain based on the code already analyzed i...